Maya and Aztec

Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations

Ancient Nahuatl Poetry ||| Vocabulary

Category: Ancient Nahuatl Poetry


The Roman numerals refer to the songs, the Arabic to the verses, in

which the word occurs. Abbreviations: lit., literally; ref.,

reflexive; pret., preterit; rev., reverential; freq.,

frequentative; post., postposition; Span., a Spanish word.

A, adv. No, not, in comp.

A, n. For atl, water, in comp.; as acalli, water-house, i.e., a


A, interj. Oh! ah! placed after the word on which stress is laid.

AC, pron., interj. Who?

ACA, pron. Some, any; somebody.

ACALLI, n. A boat, of any kind.

ACH, dubitative particle. Indeed? is it not? etc.

ACHITZINCA, adv. A little while, a short time.

ACHQUEN, adv. At what time? When?

ACI, v. To reach, to acquire.

ACOHUETZI, v. To console, to make glad. I, 3.

ACOQUIZA, v. To lift up, to raise, to increase in dignity or power.

ACOTLAZA, v. To console.

ACXOYATL, n. The wild laurel.

AHAUIA, v. To rejoice, take pleasure in; freq. of ahuia.

AHUACHIA, v. To wet one’s self, to bathe. VII, 4.

AHUACHTLI, n. Dew, moisture.

AHUEHUETL, n. The cypress tree; Cupressus disticha.

AHUIA, v. To rejoice, to be joyful.

AHUIAC, adj. Agreeable, pleasant, sweet.

AHUIAN, adj. Content, satisfied.

AHUICPA, adv. From one place to another. III, 3.

AIC, adv. Never.

ALTEPETL, n. Town, city, citadel.

AMECH, pron. ret. You, to you.

AMEYALLI, n. A fountain, a stream; lit., flowing water.

AMILLI, n. Watered and arable land. XIV, 6.

AMO, adv. No, not; amo ma, no other; amo zannen, not in vain;

pron., you, yours.

AMOXPETLATL, n. Book-mat. See XIX, 3.

AMOXTECATL, n. See XXV, 8, note.

AN, pron. You.

ANA, v. To take, to grasp, to seize.

ANAHUIA, v. To be dissatisfied.

ANCA, adv. Of the kind that. XVII, 12.

ANE, adv. Hollo! in calling.

ANGELOTIN, n. Angels. Span. XVII, 26.

ANO, adv. As little, neither.

ANOZO, conj. Or, perhaps.

AOC, adv. Not yet.

APANA, v. To clothe.

APANO, v. To ford, to cross water. XVIII, 2.

AQUEN, adv. Nothing, in no manner.

AQUIN, pron. Who? in aquin, he who.

AT, adv. Perhaps, perchance.

ATAYAHUILI, for at aya ueli. Not yet, not even.

ATIHUELMATI, v. Not to be well. IX, 3.

ATL, v. Water.

ATLAMACHTIA, v. To praise one; ref., to be proud.

ATLE, pron. Nothing.

ATLEY, in atley. Without.

ATONAUIA, v. To have a fever, to be sick.

AUH, conj. And, even, also.

AXALLI, n. Bar-sand, water-sand.

AY, v. pret. oax. To do, to make.

AYA, adv. Not yet, not now.

AYACACHTLI, n. A musical instrument. See p. 24.

AYAHUITL, n. Fog, mist, vapor.

AYAUH COZAMALOTL, n. The rainbow; lit., “mist of water jewels.”

AYOC, adv. Already not. Ayoctle, nothing more.

AYOQUAN, adv. Aoc-iuan. Nothing like it, unequaled. XVII, 17.

AYOQUIC, adv. Nevermore. V, 6.

AZAN, adv. Not a little, not a few.

AZO, conj. Or, perhaps, perchance.

AZTLACAPALLI, n. The tail feathers of a bird. XVII, 10.

C, pron. rel. He, her, it, him; postpos., with, by, in, from, at.

CA, adv. Already, yes, because, for, truly, only.

CA, v. To be (in a place).

CA, postpos. With, by, by means of.

CACALI, v. To discharge arrows.

CACOPA, post. Toward, towards.

CAHUA, v. To leave, to let, to desert, to stop, to lay down.

CALAQUIA, v. To enter, to go in.

CALLI, n. A house; in comp. cal, as nocal, my house.

CALMECAC, n. A public school, p. 10.

CAMAPANTLI, n. The cheeks, the face. XXVI, 5.

CAMATL, n. The mouth.

CAMPA, adv. Where, whither.

CAN, adv. and postpos. Where.

CANAUHTLI, n. A duck. XXI, 9.

CANEL, adv. Since, as, because.

CAQUI, v. To hear, to listen to.

CATLEHUATL, pron. Who? which? whoever, whatever.

CATQUI, v. irreg. From ca, to be (in a place).

CAUHTEHUA, v. To leave a place.

CAXTLAUITL, n. A kind of ochre. XVII, 10.

CE, adj. and art. One, a, an.

CECE, or Cecen, adj. Each, every.

CECEMELQUIXTIA, v. To come forth wholly, perfectly. I, 1.

CECEMELTIA, v. ref. To rejoice, to feel glad.

CECEMELTIC, adj. Complete, whole, entire.

CECEMMANA, v. To disperse, to scatter.

CEHUIA, v. To rest, to repose.

CEL, Sole only.

CELIA, v. 1. To receive, to obtain. 2. To blossom, to bloom.

CEMANAHUATL, n. The world, the universe.

CEMELLE, adv. With peace or joy. Usually with a negative aiccemelle, never peacefully. XV, 18; XVI, 1.

CEMILHUILTILIA, v. To detain one for a day.

CEMILHUITL, n. One day.

CEN, adv. Forever, for always; cen yauh, to go forever, to die.

CENCA, adv. Very much, exceedingly.

CENCI, adv. Elsewhere.

CENQUIXTIA, v. To select from, to pick from.

CENTZONTLATOLLI, n. The mocking bird, Turdus polyglottus; lit.,

“the myriad-voiced.”

CENTZONTLI, adj. num. Four hundred, used for any large number.

CEPANOA, v. To unite, to join together.

CHALCHIUHITL, n. The Mexican jade or green stone; emerald fig.,

green; precious.

CHANE, n. Inhabitant or resident of a place.

CHANTLI, n. A dwelling, a residence; in comp., chan.

CHIA, v. To wait, to expect.

CHIALONI, n. That which is awaited or expected.

CHICAHUAC, adj. Strong, powerful.

CHICHIA, v. 1. To make bitter. 2. To obey. XIII, 9.

CHICHINA, v. To snuff up, imbibe, or suck up, especially the odors

of burning incense, through a tube. VII, 4; XVII, 10.

CHICHINAQUILIZTLI, n. Torment, pain, suffering.

CHIHUA, v. To make, to do, to happen; chihua in noyollo, my heart

is troubled, I am pained.

CHIMALLI, n. The native shield or buckler. VI, 4.

CHITONI, v. To sparkle, to glitter.

CHITONIA, v. To gain, to realize a profit. V, 4.

CHITTOLINI, v. To bow down, to sink.

CHOCA, v. To cry (of animals and man).

CIAHUI, v. To fatigue one’s self, to tire.

CIHUACOATL, n. A magistrate of high rank; lit.,”woman serpent.”

CIHUATL, n. A woman.

CITLALIN, n. A star.

CO, postpos. In, from.

COA, or COHUA, v. To buy, to purchase.

COCHITIA, v. To sleep.

COCOA, v. To pain, to give pain.

COCOLIA, v. To hate.

COCOYA, v. To be sick.

COHUATL, or COATL, n. A serpent; a guest; a twin; the navel; a


COHUAYOTL, n. Buying, purchasing. V, 2.

COLLI, n. Ancestor, forefather.

COLOA, v. To twist, to turn, to bend.

COMONI, v. To crackle (of a fire); to be turbulent (of people).


CON, pron. Some one; comp. of c and on.

COPA, postpos. By, toward.

COPALLI, n. Resin, gum copal.

COYOUA, v. To cry, to yell. XIII, 7.

COYOHUACAN, n. The place of wolves. XIII, 10.

COYOLTOTOTL, n. The coyol bird, Piranga hepatica.

COYOTL, n. The coyote, the Mexican wolf.

COZCATIA, v. To deck with golden chains. IV, 4.

COZCATL, n. Jewel, precious stone; a string of such; a chain or


CUECUEXANTIA, v. To gather in the folds of the robe.

CUECUEYA, v. To move to and fro. XXI, 9.

CUEPA, v. To turn, to return, to bring back.

CUEPONI, v. To blossom, to bud, to bloom.

CUETLANI, v. To wilt, to perish. XV, 15.

CUETZPALTI, v. To act as a glutton, to revel in. XVII, 5.

CUEXANTLI, n. Gown, robe, petticoat.

CUI, v. To take, to gather, to collect.

CUICA, n. A song, a poem.

CUICANI, n. A singer, a poet.

CUICOYAN, n. A place for singing. See note to p. 10.

CUIHUA, v. Pass. of cui, q. v.

CUILIA, v. Rev. of cui, q. v.

CUILOA, v. To paint, to write.

CUILTONOA, v. To be rich; to rejoice greatly; to enrich or cause

joy. XV, 6.

CUITLATL, n. Excrement, dung.

CUIX, adv. An interrogative particle.


EHECATL, n. Wind, air.

EHECAYO, adj. Full of wind, stormy.

EHUA, v. To lift up, especially to raise the voice in singing.

ELCHIQUIHUITL, n. The breast, the stomach.

ELCHIQUIUHEUA, v. To fatigue, to tire. VI, 5.

ELCICIHUILIZTLI, n. A sigh, a groan.

ELEHUIA, v. To desire ardently, to covet.

ELLAQUAHUA, v. To animate, to inspire.

ELLELACI, v. To suffer great pain.

ELLELLI, n. Suffering, pain.

ELLELQUIXTIA, v. To cause joy, to make glad.

ELLELTIA, v. Ref., to regret, to repent, to abstain; act., to

prevent, to hinder, to impede, to cause pain.

EPOALLI, adj. num. Sixty.

EZTLI, n. Blood.

HUAHUAQUI, u. To dry up, to wither wholly. VIII, 1.

HUAL, adv. Hither, toward this place.

HUALLAUH, v. irreg. To come hither.

HUAN, postpos. In company with; also, a plural termination.

HUAPALCALLI, n. Houses of planks. See XVIII, 1.

HUAQUI, v. To dry up, to wither.

HUECAPAN, adj. Lofty.

HUECATLAN, adj. Deep, profound.

HUEHUETL, n. A drum. See page 22.

HUEHUETZI, v. freq. To fall often.

HUEIYOTL, n. Greatness, grandeur.

HUEL, adv. Well, good, pleasant.

HUELIC, adj. Sweet, pleasant, fragrant.

HUELMANA, v. To make smooth, or even; to polish, to burnish.

HUETZCANI, n. A jester, a laugher. XXI, 1.

HUETZI, v. To fall.

HUETZTOC, v. To be stretched out, to be in bed.

HUEY, adj. Great, large.

HUEYATLAN, n. Place of increase, from hueya, to grow greater.

HUIC, postpos. Toward, against.

HUICA v. To accompany; to carry off; to govern, to rule, to direct.

HUIHUICA, v. To follow in crowds, or often.

HUIHUITEQUI, v. To gather, to pluck.

HUILOHUAYAN, n. Bourne, goal, terminus; from huiloa, all go.

HUIPANA, v. To put in order, to arrange.

HUITOMI, v. To split, to fall. XVIII, 4.

HUITZ, v. To come.

HUITZITZICATIN, n. The humming bird. I, 1.

HUITZITZILIN, n. The humming bird, Trochilus.

HUITZLI, n. A thorn, especially of the maguey.

HUITZTLAN, n. The south; huitztlampa, from or to the south.

I, v. Pret. oic. To drink.

I, pron. His, her, its, their.

IC, conj. For, since, because; prep. With, towards, by, in;

adv. Where? when? zan ic, as soon as, often, only, on


ICA, post. With him, her, it, etc.

ICВ, adv. Sometimes, occasionally.

ICAC, v. To stand upright.

ICAHUACA, v. To sing (of birds).

ICALI, v. To war, to fight. VI, 5.

ICAUHTLI, n. Younger brother. VII, 2.

ICELIA, v. To incite another, to devote one’s self to.

ICNELIA, v. To do good, to benefit.

ICNIUHTLI, n. A friend, a companion; tocnihuan, our friends.

ICNOPILLAHUELILOCATI, v. To be ungrateful.

ICNOTLAMACHTIA, v. To excite compassion.

ICPAC, postpos. Upon, over.

IHUAN, conj. And, also.

IHUI, adv. Of this kind, in this way.

IHUINTI, v. To intoxicate, to make drunk.

IHUITL, n. Feather, plumage.

ILACATZIUI, v. To twist, to twine.

ILACATZOA, v. To twine around, to wind about. XV, 2.

ILCAHUA, v. To forget.

ILHUIA, v. To speak, to say, to tell.

ILHUICATL, n. Heaven, the sky.

ILNAMIQUILIA, v. To remember, to call to mind.

ILPIA, v. To bind, to fasten.

IM, See in.

IMATI, v. To be skillful or wise; to prepare or arrange something


IN, art. and pron. He, they, the, which, etc.; in ma oc,

meanwhile; in ic, so that, in order that.

INAYA, v. To confer, to hide. X, 2.

INECUI, v. To smell something, to perceive an odor. IV, 6.

INIC, adv. For, in order that, after that.

ININ, pron. These, they.

INIQUAC, conj. When.

INNE, conj. But.

INOC, adv. While, during.

INON, pron. Those.

INTLA, conj. If.

INTLACAMO, adv. Unless, if not.

IPALNEMOANI, n. A name of God. See III, 1, note.

IPAMPA, adv. Because.

IPOTOCTLI, n. Smoke, vapor, exhalation.

ITAUHCAYOTL, n. Fame, honor. XVII, 14.

ITHUA, v. To see, for itla. XV, 6.

ITIA, v. 1. To drink; to cause to drink. 2. To suit, to fit.

ITIC, postpos. Within, inside of.

ITLANI, v. To ask, to solicit, to demand.

ITOA, v. To say, to speak, to tell.

ITONALIZTLI, n. Sweat; fig., hard work. VI, 5.

ITOTIA, n. To dance in the native fashion.


ITTA, v. To see, to behold.

ITTITIA, v. To show, to make evident.

ITZMOLINI, v. To be born, to sprout, to grow. XX, 4.

ITZTAPALLI, n. Paving stone. XV, 8.

ITZTOC, v. To watch, to keep awake, to wait for. XVII, 12.

IXAMAYO, adj. Known, recognized. XIII, 2.

IXAYOTL, n. A tear (from the eyes).

IXCUITIA, v. To take example.

IXIMACHOCA, n. The knowledge of a person.

IXIMATI, v. To know personally.

IXITIA, v. To awake, to arouse.

IXPAN, postpos. Before the face of, in presence of.

IXQUICH, adv. As many as.

IXTIA, v. To face a person, especially the enemy; to watch.

IXTLAHUATL, n. Open field, savanna, desert.

IXTLAN, postpos. Before the face of.

IXTLI, n. Face, visage; eye.

IZA, v. To awaken, to arouse.

IZCALI, v. To arise, to rise up.

IZHUATL, n. A leaf of a tree, etc.

IZHUAYO, adj. Leafy, with leaves.

IZQUI, adj., pl. izquintin. As many, so many, all; izqui inquezqui, as many as.

IZTAC, adj. White.

IZTLACAHUIA, v. To deceive, to cheat.

IZTLACOA, v. To search for; ref., to take counsel.

MA, adv. Sign of optative, subjunctive and vetative; ma oc, yet a


MACA, v. To give, to present.

MA CA, neg. Do not.

MACAIC, adv. Never.

MACAZO TLEIN, neg. No matter, for all that. VI, 2.

MACEHUALLOTL, n. Servitude, slavery.

MACEUALTI, v. defect. To merit; to be happy.

MACEHUALTIA, v. 1. nino, to make another a vassal, to reduce to

vassalage; nite, to give vassals to one; nita, to impose a

penance on one.

MACH, adv. An intensive particle.

MACHTIA, v. To cause to know, to teach, to learn.

MACIUI, adv. Although, granted that. XVII, 13.

MACQUAITL, n. The native sword. VI, 4.

MACUELE, adv. Would that—sign of the optative.

MAHACA, adv. Not, no.

MAHUI, v. To fear, to have fear.

MAHUIZTI, v. To be esteemed, to be honored.

MAITL, n. The hand, the arm. In comp. ma, as noma, my hand.

MALACACHOA, v. To twine, to fold. XVI, 4.

MALHUIA, v. To regale, to treat well, to take care of.

MALINA, v. To twine, to wreathe.

MALINTIUH, v. To twine, to twist, to enwreathe.

MAMALIA, v. To carry.

MAMALLI, v. To enter, to penetrate. XII, 4.

MAMANA, v. To arrange a feast, to set in order. XV, 15.

MAMANI, v. See Mani.

MANA, v. To offer offerings. XVII, 3.

MANCA, v. Imp. of Mani.

MANEN, neg. That not, that it does not happen, etc.

MANI, v. To be (of broad or wide things); to be stretched out.

MANOZO, adv. Or, if.

MAQUIZTLI, n. A bracelet or other ornament of the arm. III, 5.

MATI, v. To know. Ref., to think, to reflect; qui-mati noyollo,

I presume, I doubt; nonno-mati, I attach myself to a person

or thing.

MATILOA, v. To anoint, to rub.

MAZO, adv. Although.

MEYA, v. To flow, to trickle.

MIAHUATOTOTL, n. A bird. IV, 2.

MICOHUANI, adj. Mortal, deadly.

MIEC, adv. Much, many.

MILLI, n. Cultivated field.

MIQUI, v. To die, to kill.

MIQUITLANI, v. To desire death. X, 1.

MITZ, pron. Thee, to thee.

MIXITL, n. A narcotic plant. See tlapatl. IX, 2.

MIXTECOMATL, n. A dark night, a dark place. III, 4.

MIZQUITL, n. The mesquite. XV, 1.

MO, pron. 1. Thy, thine; 2. Pron. ref. 3 sing., he, him, they,


MOCHI, adj. All.

MOCHIPA, adv. Always.

MOLINIANI, n. One who moves, or agitates. XVI, 3.

MOMOLOTZA, v. To cause to foam, to cut to pieces. XII, 3.

MOTELCHIUH, n. The governor of Tenochtitlan. XIII, 8.—See


MOTLA, v. To throw, to fall. I, 1.

MOTLALI, adj. Seated, placed, in repose.

MOYAUA, v. To conquer; to become cloudy or troubled (of water); to

talk about; to boast.

MOZTLA, adv. To-morrow.

NAHUAC, postpos. Toward, by, along, near to.

NAHUI, adj. num. Four.

NALQUIXTIA, v. To cause to penetrate, causative of nalquiza, to


NANANQUILIA, v. To answer, to reply to.

NANTLI, n. Mother, tonan, our mother, etc.

NAUHCAMPA, adv. In four directions, to four places.

NE, pron. Reflexive pronoun 3d person in verbal substantives and

impersonal verbs.

NE, pron. for nehuatl. I, me.

NECALIZTLI, n. Battle, combat.

NECH, pron. Me, to me.

NECHCA, adv. There, down there; like the French lа-bas; ocyenechca, formerly, once.

NECI, v. To appear, to show one’s self or others.

NECO, v. Pass, of nequi, q. v.

NECTIA, v. To desire, to wish for.

NECUILTONOLLI, n. Riches, possessions.

NEICALOLOYAN, n. The field of battle.

NEIXIMACHOYAN, n. A place where one is taught. XIII, 1.

NEL, adv. But.

NELHUAYOTL, n. A root; fig., principle, foundation, essence.

NELIHUI, adv. It is thus, even thus; mazo nelihui, though it be


NELLI, adv. Truly, verily.

NELOA, v. To mingle, to shake, to beat.

NELTIA, v. To verify, to make true.

NEMACTIA, v. 1. To receive, to obtain. 2. To give, to grant.

NEMAYAN, adv. In the course of the year. XII, 3.

NEMI, v. To live, to dwell, to walk.

NEMOA, v. impers. To live, to dwell.

NEN, adv. Vainly, in vain.

NENCHIUA, v. To do in vain.

NENECTIA, v. To obtain by effort. XII, 4.

NENELIUHTICA, adj. Mixed up, mingled together.

NENELOA, v. To mix, to mingle.

NENEPANOA, v. freq. To mix, to mingle. XVII, 1.

NENEQUI, v. To act tyrannically; to feign; to covet. XI, 7.

NENNEMI, v. To wander about.

NENONOTZALCUICATL, n. A song of exhortation.

NENTACI, v. To fail, to come to naught. XVII, 13, 14.

NENTLAMACHTIA, v. ref. To afflict one’s self, to torment one’s


NENTLAMATI, v. To be afflicted, disconsolate.

NEPA, adv. Here, there. Ye nepa, a little further, beyond. XXI,

6. Oc nepa, further on.

NEPANIUI, v. To join, to unite.

NEPANTLA, postpos. In the midst of.

NEPAPAN, adj. Various, diverse, different.

NEPOHUALOYAN, n. The place where one is reckoned, read, or counted.

VI, 2.

NEQUI, v. To wish, to desire.

NETLAMACHTILIZTLI, n. Riches, property.

NETLAMACHTILOYAN, n. A prosperous place. IV, 6; VII, 4.

NETLANEHUIHUIA, v. To have an abundance of all things. XXVI, 1.

NETOTILIZTLI, n. Dance, dancing.

NETOTILOYAN, n. Place of dancing.

NI, pron. pers. I. Before a vowel, n.

NICAN, adj. Here, hither.

NIHUI, adv. From no-ihui, thus, of the same manner. XVIII, 3.

NIMAN, adv. Soon, promptly.

NINO, pron. ref. I myself.

NIPA, adv. Here, in this part, there.

NO, adv. Also, like, no yuh, in the same way, thus. Pron. My,


NOCA, pron. For me, for my sake, by me.

NOHUAN, pron. With me.

NOHUIAMPA, adv. In all directions, on all sides.

NOHUIAN, adv. Everywhere, on all sides.

NONOYAN, n. Place of residence. V, 2.

NONOTZA, v. To consult, to take counsel, to reflect.

NOTZA, v. To call some one.

NOZAN, adv. Even yet, and yet, to this day.

OBISPO, n. Bishop. Span. XIX, 4.

OC, adv. Yet, again; oc achi, yet a little; oc achi ic, yet

more, comparative; oc pe, first, foremost.

OCELOTL, n. The tiger; a warrior so called. See note to I, 5.

OCOXOCHITL, n. A fragrant mountain flower. III, 2.

OCTICATL, n. See note to VII, 1.

OCTLI, n. The native wine from the maguey. In comp., oc.

OHUAGA, interj. Oh! alas!

OHUI, adj. Difficult, dangerous.

OHUICALOYAN, n. A difficult or dangerous place. XXII, 7.

OHUICAN, n. A difficult or dangerous place.

OME, adj. Two.

OMITL, n. A bone.

OMPA, adv. Where.

ON, adv. A euphonic particle, sometimes indicating action at a

distance, at other times generalizing the action of the verb.

ONCAN, adv. There, thither.

ONOC, v. To be lying down.

OPPA, adv. A second time, twice.

OQUICHTLI, n. A male, a man.

OTLI, n. Path, road, way.

OTOMITL, n. An Otomi; a military officer so called.

OTONCUICATL, n. An Otomi song. II, 1.

PACHIUI NOYOLLO, v. I am content, satisfied. IX, 2.

PACQUI, v. To please, to delight.

PACTLI, n. Pleasure, joy.

PAL, postpos. By, by means of.

PAMPA, postpos. For, because.

PAN, postpos. Upon; apan, upon the water.

PAPALOTL, n. The butterfly.

PAPAQUI, v. To cause great joy.

PATIUHTLI, n. Price, wages, reward.

PATLAHUAC, adj. Large, spacious.

PATLANI, v. To fly.

PEHUA, v. Pret., opeuh, to begin, to commence.

PEPETLACA, v. To shine, to glitter.

PEPETLAQUILTIA, v. To cause to shine.

PETLACOATL, n. The scolopender, the centipede. XVII, 24.

PETLATL, n. A mat, a rug (of reeds or flags); fig., power,


PETLATOTLIN, n. A rush suitable to make mats. XXI, 10.

PETLAUA, v. To polish, to rub to brightness.

PEUHCAYOTL, n. Beginning, commencement.

PILIHUI, v. To fasten to, to mingle with. XXI, 6.

PILIHUITL, n. Beloved child. XII, 3.

PILLI, n. Son, daughter, child. A noble, a chief, a ruler, a lord.

Tepilhuan, the children, the young people. Nopiltzin, my


PILOA, v. To hang down, to suspend.

PILTIHUA, v. To be a boy, to be young.

PIPIXAUI, v. To snow, to rain heavily.

PIXAUI, v. To snow, to rain.

POCHOTL, n. The ceiba tree; fig., protector, chief.

POCTLI, n. Smoke, vapor, fog, mist.

POLOA, v. To destroy; to perish.

POPOLOA, v. Freq. of poloa.

POPOYAUHTIUH, v. To leave a glorious memory. XXI, 5.

POXAHUA, v. To work the soil, to labor.

POYAUA, v. To color, to dye. XVII, 21.

POYAUI, v. To become clear, to clear off.

POYOMATL, n. A flower like the rose. IV, 6.

POZONI, v. To boil, to seethe; fig., to be angry.

QUA, v. To eat.

QUAHTLA, n. Forest, woods.

QUAHUITL, n. A tree; a stick; fig., chastisement.

QUAITL, n. Head, top, summit.

QUALANI, v. To anger, to irritate.

QUALLI, adj. Good, pleasant.

QUATLAPANA, v. To break one’s head; to suffer much.

QUAUHTLI, n. The eagle; a warrior so called; bravery, distinction.

I, 5.

QUEMACH, adv. Is it possible!

QUEMMACH AMIQUE, rel. Those who are happy, the happy ones. IX, 2.

QUENAMI, adv. As, the same as.

QUENAMI CAN, adv. As there, the same as there, sometimes with on

euphonic inserted, quenonami.

QUENIN, adj. How, how much.

QUENNEL, adv. What is to be done? What remedy?

QUENNONAMICAN, See under quenami.

QUEQUENTIA, v. To clothe, to attire.

QUETZA, v. Nino, to rise up; to unite with; to aid; nite, to lift


QUETZALLI, n. A beautiful feather; fig., something precious or


QUETZALTOTOTL, n. A bird; Trogon pavoninus.

QUEXQUICH, pron. So many as, how much.

QUI, pron. rel. He, her, it, they, them.

QUIAUATL, n. Entrance, door. XVII, 18.

QUIAUITL, n. Rain, a shower.

QUIMILOA, v. To wrap up, to clothe, to shroud the dead. XI, 6.

QUIN, pron. rel. They, then.

QUIQUINACA, v. To groan, to buzz, etc.

QUIQUIZOA, v. To ring bells. IV, 3.

QUIZA, v. To go forth, to emerge.

QUIZQUI, adj. Separated, divided.

QUIZTIQUIZA, v. To go forth hastily. XXII.

TAPALCAYOA, v. To be full of potsherds and broken bits. XV, 16.

TATLI, n. and v. See p. 19.

TE, pron. pers. 1. Thou. 2. Pron. rel. indef. Somebody.

TEAHUIACA, adj. Pleasing, agreeable.

TECA, pron. Of some one; te and ca.

TECA, v. To stretch out, to sleep; to concern one’s self with.

Moteca, they unite together.

TECH, postpos. In, upon, from. Pron. Us.

TECOCOLIA, n. A hated person, an enemy.

TECOMAPILOA, n. A musical instrument. See p. 23.

TECPILLI, n. Nobleman, lord.

TECPILLOTL, n. The nobility; noble bearing, courtesy.

TEHUAN, pron. 1. We. 2. With some one.

TEHUATL, pron. Thou.

TEINI, v. To break, to fracture.

TEL, conj. But, though.

TELCHIHUA, v. To detest, to hate, to curse.

TEMA, v. To place something somewhere.

TEMACHIA, v. To have confidence in, to expect, to hope for.

TEMI, v. To be filled, replete; to be stretched out. XXVI, 4.

TEMIQUI, v. To dream.

TEMO, v. To descend, to let fall.

TEMOA, v. To search, to seek.

TENAMITL, n. A town; the wall of a town.

TENAUAC, post. With some one, near some one.

TENMATI, v. To be idle, negligent, unfortunate.

TENQUIXTIA, v. To speak forth, to pronounce, to declare.

TENYOTL, n. Fame, honor.

TEOATL, n. Divine water. See VI, 4, note.

TEOCUITLA, n. Gold, of gold.

TEOHUA, n. A priest. XVII, 19.

TEOQUECHOL, n. A bird of beautiful plumage.

TEOTL, n. God, divinity.

TEOXIHUITL, n. Turquoise; fig., relation, ruler, parent.

TEPACCA, adj. Causing joy, pleasurable.

TEPEITIC, n. Narrow valley, glade, glen.

TEPETL, n. A mountain, a hill.

TEPEUA, v. To spread abroad, to scatter, to conquer. XV, 3.

TEPONAZTLI, n. A drum. See p. 22.

TEPOPOLOANI, v. To slay, to slaughter.

TEQUANI, n. A wild beast, a savage person.

TEQUI, v. To cut.

TETECUICA, v. To make a loud noise, to thunder. XXI, 7.

TETL, n. A stone, a rock. In comp., te.

TETLAMACHTI, n. That which enriches, glorifies, or pleases.

TETLAQUAUAC, adj. Hard or strong as stone. Comp. of tetl and


TETOZCATEMO, v. To let fall or throw forth notes of singing. I, 2.

TETZILACATL, n. A copper gong. XVII, 21. See p. 24.

TEUCTLI, n., pl. teteuctin. A noble, a ruler, a lord; inteteuctin, the lords, the great ones.

TEUCYOTL, n. Nobility, lordship.

TEUH, postpos. Like, similar to.

TEUHYOTL, n. Divinity, divineness.

TEYOLQUIMA, adj. Pleasing, odorous, sweet.

TEYOTL, n. Fame, honor.

TI, pron. 1. thou; timo, ref.; tic, act. 2. we; tito, ref.;

tic, act.

TILANI, v. To draw out.

TILINI, v. To crowd, to press. XVII, 19.

TIMALOA, v. To glorify, to exalt, to praise.

TIMO, pron. ref. Thou thyself.

TITO, pron. ref. We ourselves.

TIZAITL, n. Chalk; anything white; an example or model.

TIZAOCTLI, n. White wine. See VII, 2.

TLA, adv., for intla, if; pron. indef., something, anything;

postpos. in abundance.

TLACACE, interj. Expressing astonishment or admiration. XVII, 3.

TLACAQUI, v. To hear, to understand.

TLACATEUCTLI, n. A sovereign, a ruler.

TLACATI, v. To be born.

TLACATL, n. Creature, person.

TLACAZO, adv. Truly, certainly.

TLACHIA, v. To see, to look upon.

TLACHIHUAL, n. Creature, invention.

TLACHINOLLI, n. Battle, war; from chinoa, to burn.

TLACOA, v. To injure, to do evil, to sin.

TLACOCHTLI, n. The arrow.

TLACOCOA, v. To buy, to purchase. X, 1.

TLACOHUA, v. To buy, to purchase.

TLACOHUA, v. To beat, to chastise.

TLACOTLI, n. A servant, slave.

TLACOUIA, v. To split, to splinter.

TLACUILOA, v. To inscribe, to paint in, to write down.

TLAELEHUIANI, adj. Desirous of, anxious for.

TLAHUELLI, n. Anger, ire.

TLAHUICA, n. Servant, page; also, a native of the province of

Tlahuican. (See Index.}

TLAILOTLAQUI, n. “Workers in filth;” scum; a term applied in

contempt. XIII, 8; XV, 12, 14. Also a proper name.

(See Index.)

TLALAQUIA, v. To bury, to inter.

TLALLI, n. Earth, ground; tlalticpac, on the earth.

TLALNAMIQUI, v. To think of, to remember.

TLALPILONI, n. An ornament for the head. VI, 4, from ilpia.

TLAMACHTI, v. ref. To be rich, happy, prosperous.

TLAMAHUIZOLLI, n. Miracle, wonder.

TLAMATILLOLLI, n. Ointment; anything rubbed in the hands. XI, 9.

TLAMATQUI, adj. Skillful, adroit.

TLAMATTICA, adj. Calm, tranquil.

TLAMELAUHCAYOTL, n. A plain or direct song. II, 1.

TLAMI, v. To end, to finish, to come to an end.

TLAMOMOYAUA, v. To scatter, to destroy. XV, 21.

TLAN, postpos. Near to, among, at.

TLANECI, v. To dawn, to become day. Ye tlaneci, the day breaks.

TLANEHUIA, v. Nicno. To revel, to indulge one’s self in. XXI, 8.

TLANELTOCA, v. To believe in, to have faith in.

TLANIA, v. To recover one’s self, to return within one’s self.

TLANIICZA, v. To abase, to humble. IX, 3.

TLANTIA, v. To terminate, to end.

TLAOCOL, adj. Sad, melancholy, pitiful, merciful.

TLAOCOLIA, v. To be sad, etc.

TLAOCOLTZATZIA, v. To cry aloud with grief. I, 3.

TLAPALHUIA, v., rel. To be brilliant or happy; act., to salute a

person; to paint something.

TLAPALLI, n. and adj. Colored; dyed; red.

TLAPALOA, v. To salute, to greet.

TLAPANAHUIA, adj. Surpassing, superior, excellent; used to form


TLAPANI, v. To dye, to color. XVII, 10.

TLAPAPALLI, adj. Striped, in stripes.

TLAPATL, n. The castor-oil plant; the phrase mixitl tlapatl means

stupor, intoxication. IX, 2.

TLAPEPETLANI, v. To sparkle, to shine forth.

TLAPITZA, v. Fr. pitza, to play the flute. XVII, 26.

TLAQUALLI, n. Food, eatables.

TLAQUAUAC, adj. Strong, hard.

TLAQUAUH, adj. Strongly, forcibly.

TLAQUILLA, adj. Stopped up, filled. XX, 4.

TLAQUILQUI, n. One who plasters, a mason. XXI, 1.

TLATEMMATI, v. To suffer afflictions.

TLATENEHUA, v. To promise.

TLATHUI, v. To dawn, to become light.

TLATIA, v. 1. To hide, to conceal; 2. to burn, to set on fire.

TLATLAMANTITICA, adj. Divided, separated.

TLATLATOA, v. To speak much or frequently. XVII, 11.

TLATLAUHTIA, v. To pray. XVI, 3.

TLATOANI, n. Ruler, lord.

TLATOCAYOTL, n. The quality of governing or ruling.

TLATOLLI, n. Word, speech, order.

TLATZIHUI, v. To neglect, to be negligent; to be abandoned, to lie

fallow; to leave, to withdraw.

TLAUANTLI, n. Vase, cup. XXVI, 4.

TLAUHQUECHOL, n. A bird, the red heron, Platalea ajaja.

TLAUILLOTL, n. Clearness, light. X, 1.

TLAXILLOTIA, v. To arrange, sustain, support. IX, 4.

TLAXIXINIA, v. To disperse, to destroy.

TLAYAUA, v. To make an encircling figure in dancing.

TLAYAUALOLLI, adj. Encircled, surrounded. XXI, 6.


TLAYOCOLIA, v. To make, to form, to invent. XIV.

TLAYOCOYALLI, n. Creature, invention.

TLAZA, v. To throw away; fig., to reject, to despise.

TLAZOTLA, v. To love, to like.

TLE, pron. int. and rel. What? That.

TLEAHUA, v. To set on fire, to fire.

TLEIN, pron., int. and rel. What? That.

TLEINMACH, adv. Why? For what reason?

TLENAMACTLI, n. Incense burned to the gods. III, 1.

TLEPETZTIC, adj. Shining like fire, tletl, petzlic. XV, 26.

TLETL, n. Fire.

TLEYMACH, adv. Why? Wherefore?

TLEYOTL, n. Fame, honor.

TLEZANNEN, adv. To what good? Cui bono?

TLILIUHQUI, adj. Black, brown.

TLILIUI, v. To blacken, to paint black. XII, 6.

TLOC, postpos. With, near to.

TLOQUE NAHUAQUE, n. A name of divinity. See I, 6, note.

TO, pron. posses. Our, ours.

TOCA, v. To follow.

TOCI, n. “Our ancestress,” a divinity so called.

TOCO, v. Impers. of toca.

TOHUAN, pron. With us.

TOLINIA, v. To be poor, to be unfortunate.

TOLQUATECTITLAN, n. The place where the head is bowed for

lustration. III, 1.

TOMA, v. To loosen, to untie, to open. XVII, 3.

TOMAHUAC, adj. Great, heavy, large.

TONACATI, v. To be prosperous or fertile.

TONACATLALLI, n. Rich or fertile land.

TONAMEYO, adj. Shining like the sun, glittering.

TONAMEYOTL, n. Ray of the sun, light, brilliancy.

TONATIUH, n. The sun.

TONEUA, v. To suffer pain; nite, to inflict pain.

TOQUICHPOHUAN, n. Our equals. I, 3.

TOTOTL, n. A bird, generic term.

TOZMILINI, adj. Sweet voiced. XXI, 3.

TOZNENETL, n. A parrot, Psittacus signatus.

TOZQUITL, n. The singing voice, p. 21.

TZALAN, postpos. Among, amid.

TZATZIA, v. To shout, to cry aloud.

TZAUHQUI, v. To spin. XVII, 22.

TZETZELIUI, v. To rain, to snow; fig., to pour down.

TZIHUAC, n. A species of bush. XV, 1.

TZIMIQUILIZTLI, n. Slaughter, death. XVI, 5.

TZINITZCAN, n. A bird, Trogon Mexicanus.

TZITZILINI, n. A bell.

TZOTZONA, v. To strike the drum.

UALLAUH, v. To come. See huallauh.

UITZ, v. To come.

ULLI, n. Caoutchouc. See p. 22.

XAHUA, v. To paint one’s self, to array one’s self in the ancient

manner. XXIV, 1.

XAMANI, v. To break, to crack.

XAXAMATZA, v. To cut in pieces, to break into bits.

XAYACATL, n. Face, mask.

XELIHUI, v. To divide, to distribute.

XEXELOA, v. To divide, to distribute.

XILOTL, n. Ear of green corn.

XILOXOCHITL, n. The flower of maize. XVII, 10.

XIMOAYAN, n. A place of departed souls. See I, 8.

XIMOHUAYAN, n. Place of departed spirits. VIII, 1.

XIUHTOTOTL, n. A bird, Guiaca cerulea.

XIUITL, n. A leaf, plant; year; anything green.

XOCHICALLI, n. A house for flowers, or adorned with them.

XOCHIMECATL, n. A rope or garland of flowers.


XOCHITECATL, n. See XXV, 7, note.

XOCHITL, n. A flower, a rose.

XOCHIYAOTL, n. Flower-war. See XVI, 4, note.

XOCOMIQUI, v. To intoxicate, to become drunk.

XOCOYA, v. To grow sour. XIII, 4.

XOPALEUAC, n. Something very green.

XOPAN, n. The springtime.

XOTLA, v. To blossom, to flower; to warm, to inflame; to cut, to

scratch, to saw.

XOXOCTIC, adj. Green; blue. XVI, 6.

XOYACALTITLAN, n. The house or place of decay. III, 1.

Y., Abbrev. for ihuan, and in, q. v.

YA, adv. Already, thus; same as ye; v., to suit, to fit. Part.

euphonic or expletive. See note to XVII, 3.

YAN, postpos. Suffix signifying place.

YANCUIC, adj. New, fresh, recent.

YANCUICAN, adv. Newly, recently.

YAOTL, n. War, battle.

YAOYOTL, n. Warfare.

YAQUI, adj. Departed, gone, left for a place.

YAUH, v., irreg. To go.

YE, adv. Already, thus; ye no ceppa, a second time; ye ic,

already, it is already.

YE, pron. He, those, etc.

YE, adj. num. Three.

YECE, adv. But.

YECEN, adv. Finally, at last.

YECNEMI, v. To live righteously.

YECOA, v. To do, to finish, to conclude.

YECTENEHUA, v. To bless, to speak well of.

YECTLI, adj. Good, worthy, noble.

YEHUATL, pron. He, she, it. Pl. yehuan, yehuantin.

YEHUIA, v. To beg, to ask charity.

YEPPA YUHQUI. Formerly, it was there. VII, 2.

YHUINTIA. See ihuinti.

YOCATL, n. Goods, possessions; noyocauh, my property. XV, 26.

YOCAUA, n. Master, possessor, owner.

YOCOLIA, v. To form, to make.

YOCOYA, v. To make, to invent, to create.

YOHUATLI, n. Night, darkness.

YOLAHUIA, v. To rejoice greatly.

YOLCIAHUIA, v. To please one’s self, to make glad.

YOLCUECUECHOA, v. To make the heart tremble. IV, 6.

YOLEHUA, v. To excite, to animate.

YOLIHUAYAN, n. A place of living III, 5.

YOLLO, adj. Adroit, skillful; also for iyollo, his heart.

YOLLOTL, v. Heart, mind, soul.

YOLNONOTZA, v. See note to I, 1.

YOLPOXAHUA, v. To toil mentally.

YUHQUI, adv. As, like.

YUHQUIMATI, v. To understand, to realize.

ZACATL, n. Herbage, straw, hay. XXI, 5.

ZACUAN, n. Feather of the zacuan bird; fig., yellow; prized.

ZACUAN TOTOTL, n. The zacuan bird, Oriolus dominicensis.

ZAN, adv. Only, but; zan cuel, in a short time; zanen, perhaps;

Zan nen, in vain.

ZANCUEL ACHIC, adv. A moment, an instant; often; zan ye, but

again, but quickly.

ZANIO, pron. I alone, he or it alone.

ZOA, v. To pierce; to spread out; to open; to sew; to string

together; to put in order.

ZOLIN TOTOTL, n. The quail.

ZOMA, v. To become angry.

ZOMALE, adj. For comalli, vase, cup. XXVI, 4.

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