Maya and Aztec

Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations

The annals of the cakchiquels. Vocabulary, 209. by Daniel G. Brinton; 1885

Category: Books, The Annals of the Cakchiquels



  • A, n. A year; the thigh; pron. thy.
  • Abah, n. A stone; a jar; the private parts.
  • Aca, part. Related, affined. See p. 32.
  • Ach. A prefix indicating companionship.
  • Achak, n. Excrement, offal, refuse, waste.
  • Achcayupil, n. Quilted cotton defensive armor; or perhaps a
    two-pointed lance; from ach, united; cay, two; uopih, to wound
    with a lance. See p. 18.
  • Achii, n. Man (vir).
  • Achpe, v. To accompany one.
  • Achpetic, n. That which accompanies one.
  • Achya, v. To receive (Brasseur); to give with.
  • Achyaic, n. That which is given along with something else; yaic,
    passive verbal from ya, to give.
  • Acodzih, v. (For the more usual qoçih). To strike or beat,
    especially a drum.
  • Ah, n. Name of a day. A prefix. Gram. p. 55.
  • Ahauh, n. Ruler, chief, lord. See p. 36.
  • Ahauarem, n. Majesty, power.
  • Ahcic, adv. Up, above, on top.
  • Ahilah, v. To count or reckon with grains of corn or cacao, after the
    Indian fashion.
  • Ahilan, v. To count, to number.
  • Ahlabal, n. Warrior, fighting man. See Labal.
  • Aho, v. To wish, to like.
  • Ahpop, n. The head chief. “El cacique mayor. See p. 36.
  • Ahpopcamahay, n. An official messenger, especially an official sent
    to collect tribute. See p. 36.
  • Ah-tzih, n. Speaker, orator. See p. 37.
  • Ah-dzib, n. A scribe.
  • Akah, n. A hornet.
  • Akan, n. Leg, foot.
  • Al, n. Son, child.
  • [210]Alabil, n. Slave, servant.
  • Alah, v. To bear, to carry; hence, to bring forth, to give birth to,
    as a woman a child.
  • Alan, v. To ridicule, depreciate.
  • Amaq, n. Village, tribe, region or district. See p. 33.
  • An, part. An emphatic particle, truly, really.
  • Aneh, v. To flee, escape.
  • Anom, n. A fugitive.
  • At, pron. Thou.
  • Atiniçah, v. To bathe.
  • Avan, n. Crops, plantings.
  • Aqa, n. Night, darkness.
  • Adzaxah, v. To hear, to listen to.
  • Bak, v. To bore. n. A bone.
  • Bala, adv. Where.
  • Balam, n. A tiger.
  • Balbaxin, adj. Twisted, interlaced, dense.
  • Ban, v. 1. To make, to do, or cause to do. 2. To ask. 3. To dress, or
    arrange one’s apparel.
  • Bay, n. A mole, a ground animal.
  • Badz, n. What is spun, as cotton, or drawn into fine threads as
    gold. n. A monkey.
  • Be, v. To go.
  • Belehe, adv. Nine.
  • Bey, n. Path, road, route.
  • Bi, n. A name; ru bi, his or its name.
  • Bijh, v. To speak, to talk.
  • Bijn, v. To walk, to go on foot.
  • Birbot, v. To make a loud, rumbling noise. Ti birbot, ti nicnot, it
    roars and it rumbles, of the volcano (Varea).
  • Bitol, n. The creator. See p. 40.
  • Bix, n. 1. Songs, chants, poems. 2. Sparks from a fire (p. 17).
  • Bok, v. To tear up; to pull down; to sell for another; to translate:
    to defeat.
  • Bol, v. To make deep trenches in the soil (“as the Indians of the
    Sierra.” Varea).
  • Boleh, v. To go in a row, in a series, or in a procession. Applied to
    mountains, when one rises upon another (Varea).
  • Boz, vn. To issue forth; hence, of flowers, to open, to blow; of a
    butterfly, to come forth from the cocoon; of chicks, to[211] come from the
    egg; of grains of maize, to burst; of men, to proceed from, to be born;
    xeboço, the absolute form.
  • Cabih, n. Day after to-morrow.
  • Cacouh, n. Cacao.
  • Cah, n. The sky, heaven, the atmospheric region.
  • Cah, or Cahi, adv. Four.
  • Cahlahuh, adv. Fourteen.
  • Cahmah, v. To meet a repulse, defeat.
  • Cak, adj. Red.
  • Cakix, n. A bird. See p. 199.
  • Cal, n. That which is united or joined.
  • Camel, n. A mortal. Adj. Humble.
  • Camiçah, v. To kill, to slay, to destroy.
  • Can, adv. Remaining, aforesaid, already. See Gram., p. 65.
  • Cana, n. A captive taken in war.
  • Canah, v. To remain, to leave; ti canay, neuter, it appears, it is
  • Cani, adv. Soon, shortly.
  • Canoh, v. To seek, to search for.
  • Car, n. Fish, generic name.
  • Cauh, n. Ornaments, adornments.
  • Cavach, n. Likeness, resemblance.
  • Cavuh, Cauh, v. To place anew, to notify, to prepare; to change, to
    put on again.
  • Cay, adv. Two.
  • Cac, n. Cock (Br).
  • Cib, n. Smoke, vapor.
  • Civan, n. A ravine, barranca.
  • Cic, v. To lift up the voice, n. Shoutings.
  • Co. A concessive particle. Good! Bravo! Courage! On!
  • Col, v. To free, to liberate; to redeem, to save; xoh ru col J. C.
    chuvach cruz.
    Christ redeemed us on the cross.
  • Coon, n. For cun, pudenda of a woman (Xim); hence, woman.
  • Cot, n. The eagle.
  • Cou, n. Something rough and violent.
  • Couiricah, v. To strengthen, to invigorate.
  • Covil, adj. Bold, courageous.
  • Coz, v. To rest.
  • Cucu, n. Large vase for water.
  • Cuçul, n. Cradle.
  • [212]Cuke, v. To seat onesself.
  • Cuker, v. To be seated; to be content.
  • Cumatz, n. A serpent (gen). An eel.
  • Cunum Cachak. See p. 206.
  • Cuyuch, n. A species of parrot.
  • Ça, v. To expose or show to the sun; to dry. Met.; çao ru vach, to
    show one’s face, to recover power.
  • Çach, v. To lose, to become lost.
  • Çak, adj. White; bright; light. n. A white or clear thing. A
    clearing in the forest, cleared land (Varea).
  • Çahcab, n. p. 12, for
  • Çakcab, n. Literally, white honey; white varnish (Brasseur). Probably
    “war paint.”
  • Çaker, v. To make white, light or clear. To clear a space in the
    forest (Varea). See p. 199.
  • Çakcorovach, n. The dove or quail.
  • Çakquiy, n. The maguey, used in making rope, etc.
  • Çaqih for Çakqih, n. Literally, white days, applied to the spring
    of the year. See p. 198.
  • Çamahel, n. Messengers.
  • Çanay, n. Sand.
  • Çaqul, n. A plantain; in gen. any kind of vegetable.
  • Çac, n. Locusts.
  • Çe, v. To row.
  • Çel, n. A large painted vase for bathing (jicara pintado, Anon).
  • Çeteçic, adj. Circular, rounded. See p. 18.
  • Çipah, v. To present, to offer.
  • Çol, v. for Tzolih, q. v.
  • Çol, v. To upheave, to make a revolution.
  • Çolo, v. To turn about; to return; to go back.
  • Çoc, n. A bat.
  • Çubak, n. A kind of flute.
  • Çutulakin, v. To render homage.
  • Çuq, n. A cloud, the clouds.
  • Cha, v. To say, to tell, to speak.
  • Chacan, v. To cover, enclose; to be within or on.
  • Chactit ?, from Chaq, something tied or sewed.
  • Chăh, n. The pine tree, the ocote pine.
  • Chah, n. Ashes, cinders.
  • [213]Chapalcivan, n. See p. 197.
  • Chahih, v. To guard, to watch; to protect; to keep. Chahal çivan,
    the guard of the ravine. See Gram., p. 42.
  • Chahir, v. To burn, to reduce to cinders. From chah.
  • Chaomal, n. Beauty, fruitfulness.
  • Chaomar, v. To yield abundantly.
  • Chap, v. To seize, to take, to take possession of.
  • Chay, n. A stone. See p. 18.
  • Chaqabeh, v. To receive with pleasure, to take gladly.
  • Chee, n. Wood, stick, tree.
  • Chi, n. Mouth; aperture, opening; gate; mouth of a river; coast of the
    sea; edge or border.
  • Chi. 1. With, by, to, for, against. 2. In order to, that, and 3. While,
    during, being.
  • Chic. 1. A verbal particle, denoting past time. 2. Already, more. Before
    vi, the c is dropped, as hun chi vi, once more.
  • Chicah. Above, upon, upwards.
  • Chicohol. Between yourselves.
  • Chicop. A brute, an animal as distinguished from man; met.; a brutish
    man. See p. 39.
  • Chiih (chi ih). Upon, on.
  • Chila. There, that way.
  • Chin. For, by, by means of, thus.
  • Chinak, interrog. Who, which, what?
  • Chinamit, n. Town, village. See p. 32.
  • Chique. To, for those.
  • Chiquichin. To, for those.
  • Chiquih. Against those.
  • Chire. To, for him, that one.
  • Chirih. Behind, against that one; from, out of.
  • Chivach. Before yourselves.
  • Chive. To, for, against yourselves.
  • Cho. To, for, in, until, towards.
  • Chocola, adj. In common, communal.
  • Cholol, v. To place in order, to arrange.
  • Chom, n. A lobster.
  • Choy, n. A lake.
  • Chucohol, prep. Among, between.
  • Chuluc, n. Urine.
  • Chun, n. Lime.
  • Chunah, v. To whitewash.
  • [214]Chupam, prep. Within, in.
  • Chuvi, prep. Upon, over, on; chuvi huyu, on or upon the mountain.
  • Echa, n. Edible fruits and vegetables. A generic word.
  • Elah, v. To humble, to submit to.
  • Elebal, n. The place whence something comes forth; as relebal çib,
    the exit of the smoke, i. e., the chimney (Varea); hence, relebal
    , the sunrise.
  • Eleqah, v. To steal, to rob.
  • Eleqom, n. A thief, a robber.
  • Et, n. A mark, sign. v. To mark, designate.
  • Etamah, v. To know, to understand; from et, a mark or sign.
  • Ha, pron. He, it, that one; it is so; ha ri, it is thus; ha ok, at
    that time, then, when.
  • Hab, n. Rain.
  • Hach, v. To divide, to separate.
  • Hak, v. To open (a door, the mouth, etc).
  • Hal, v. To change, to alter. See p. 46.
  • Halal, adv. A little, briefly.
  • Halebal, n. That by which one changes or transforms himself, a magic
    power; an instrumental form from hal, to change one’s garments, etc.
    See p. 46.
  • Halizin, n. A change, an alteration; a change of raiment; the hair of
    the head (Br).
  • Hay, n. House, home. See p. 33.
  • He, pron. Those, their.
  • Hetah, adv. See Tak.
  • Hec, v. To drive or force away.
  • Hilil, v. To thunder, to rumble.
  • Hique, v. For chique, q. v.
  • Hit, v. To promise, make vows; to offer.
  • Hiquh, v. To ardently desire, to covet.
  • Hidz, v. To hang.
  • Hol,
    } v. To concede, grant.
  • Holom, n. The head, a chief.
  • Homet, n. Bark of trees.
  • Hote, v. To rise, to go up, to mount.
  • Hox, n. Branch of a tree.
  • [215]Hox, v. To copulate, of men or beasts.
  • Hoye, part. Expressing compassion.
  • Hoyevah,
    Hoye ru vach,
    } v. To have compassion, to extend mercy, to spare.
  • Hucu, n. A boat, canoe; a large dish.
  • Hucumah, adv. Soon, promptly.
  • Hul, n. A hole, a pit, a grave, etc.
  • Huley, adj. Deep, profound.
  • Huluhut or Hulhut, n. Something burning, on fire.
  • Hun, adv. One; a or an.
  • Hunamah, v. To make equal, to make ready, prepare.
  • Hunchic, adv. The other.
  • Hutak, adv. See Tak.
  • Huciçic, adv. Only, alone, solely.
  • Huyu, n. Mountain, hill, mound; a land or country, or place of
    residence (nu huyubal, mi pueblo, Varea). The interior as opposed to
    the coast. See Taqah.
  • Ikan, n. A load, a burden, tribute, tax.
  • Ikiqa, n. The right hand. qa hand.
  • Il, v. a. To reach, to get, to see, to obtain; n. to get to, to
    arrive at.
  • Il, n. Fault, blame.
  • In, pron. I.
  • Ixim, n. Maize.
  • Ixok, n. A woman.
  • Ico, v. To pass on or beyond; to exceed, surpass.
  • Icovibeh, v. To go on, or beyond.
  • Ka, pron. Our.
  • Kaçah, v. To put down, to conquer, to destroy.
  • Kah, v. To descend, descending. See Gram., p, 64.
  • Kahibal, n. The place of descent; hence, kahibal qih, the sunset.
  • Kel, v. To disobey.
  • Ki, part. An interrogative; also, denoting affirmation; often used
    merely to give strength to an assertion. Gram., p. 71.
  • Koch, n. The crow.
  • Kul, n. The neck.
  • Kup, v. To seize, take by force.
  • Kuruh, v. To draw or drag out or on.
  • [216]Lab, n. A portent, an augury. See pp. 39, 47.
  • Labal, n. An enemy, opponent.
  • Labalih, v. To make war, to fight. See p. 47.
  • Lehah, v. To fall sick; to grow weak; to be overcome or conquered.
  • Lakam, n. The war banner, “bandera de la guerra.”
  • Lakeh, v. To bring, to carry, to give.
  • Lam, n. The hard part; trunk of a tree, etc.
  • Lamaba. To detain one, to prevent him from going.
  • Laqabeh, v. To enter into a place, to dwell there; to occupy as a
    residence (entrar á morar en casa. Varea).
  • Laqeh, v. To join or unite two things; especially to unite in the
    sexual act.
  • Lob, n. Magical power.
  • Lol, n. The silence or state of desertion left by a pestilence, etc.
    See p. 38.
  • Loq, v. To prize, to hold dear, to esteem.
  • Macamo, v. To take alarm, to be frightened, to wonder at.
  • Maha, adv. Even not, not yet.
  • Mahanick, adv. Before that, previous to.
  • Malohic, n. A preparation of maize (?).
  • Mam, n. Grandchild.
  • Mama, n. An old man; pl. mamaa, the old men; nu mama, my
    ancestors; also the rulers of a village; applied to animals it means the
    male of the species.
  • Mani, adv. No, not.
  • May, v. A cycle, especially of 20 years. May qih, a calendar for
    calculating cycles. See p. 31.
  • Meal, n. A daughter.
  • Meba, adj. Poor.
  • Meh, n. A gable in a roof; an angle; a fold in clothing, etc.
  • Meho, v. To make an angle or fold; hence, to go to a place and return
    from it.
  • Mem, n. A dumb man; to be dumb.
  • Mez, n. A cat. See p. 44.
  • Meztah, v. To forget.
  • Meqen, adj. Warm, hot.
  • Mi, adv. Particle, denoting recent past time, prefixed to form the
    proximate preterit tense.
  • Mier, adv. Already, previously.
  • [217]Mich, v. To tear up, to tear out or down.
  • Michoh, v. To lie to, to deceive; to ridicule, to laugh at, to mock.
  • Mol, v. To gather together scattered things, to fill up, to collect.
  • Moyeuh, n. A fog, the mist.
  • Muh, n. Shade, shadow; hence, fig. protection, guardianship. See p.
  • Muk, v. To hide, to conceal; to bury.
  • Mun, adj. Hungry, n. A slave. See p. 39.
  • Na, adv. A particle denoting priority, from nabey, first; hence,
    navipe, and, also, next, until, presently. See Gram., p. 65.
  • Na, v. To know, to learn.
  • Nabey, adv. First.
  • Nabeyah, v. To be first.
  • Naek, adv. Although, but.
  • Nano, v. To receive more than another.
  • Nanoh, adj. Known, said; hence, xa nanoh, already known, aforesaid,
    etc. From na, to know.
  • Naval, n. Knowledge, wisdom; especially occult knowledge, magic,
    sorcery. See p. 46.
  • Nicnic, v. To quiver, to tremble.
  • Nima, adj. Great, n. A great thing.
  • Nimah, v. To make great, to adore.
  • Nimal, n. The elder brother; the head of a home.
  • Nicah, n. The middle, the center.
  • Nicahal, n. The middle parts of anything; the sexual parts,
  • Nu, pron. My, mine.
  • Oc, v. To enter.
  • Ochoch, n. House. See p. 33.
  • Ocox, n. Fungus, of the edible variety.
  • Oh, pron. We.
  • Oh, adv. Sign of the imperative. Oh a cama pe lae queh, Bring that
    horse (Varea).
  • Ohb, n. A cough.
  • Oher, adv. Formerly, in ancient times.
  • Ok, adv. When; also the imperative particle.
  • Okok, n. Wild goose.
  • Oqueçah, v. To put something in something; hence, to put on[218] one’s
    clothes, to dress onesself. From oc, to enter. Met. to obey.
  • Oro, v. To bore, to pierce, to hollow out.
  • Oxlahuh, adv. Thirteen.
  • Oyevar, v. To become angry.
  • Oyobeh, v. To hope.
  • Oq, v. To weep, to cry.
  • Oqeh, n. A wail, a weeping. v. To bewail.
  • Pa, prep. In, to; tan qui be pa huyu, I am going to the
    mountain pa hay, in the house. Before a vowel, pan is used.
  • Pac or Pacay. The anona, the custard apple.
  • Pacac, v. To dawn.
  • Pae, v. To be on foot, to stand, to be at.
  • Palah, v. To annoy, to bother.
  • Palouh, n. The ocean, the sea; called also nima ya, the great water.
    See p. 195.
  • Patan, v. Tribute, tax. See p. 39.
  • Pax, v. To break; to put to flight, to scatter.
  • Paz, n. Swathing bands; folding robes.
  • Pe, v. To come. Often used in a peculiar gerundive sense, as a verbal
    particle. See Gram., p. 64.
  • Pek, n. The fruit tree called Pataxte (Guzman).
  • Pixa, n. Order, command, direction.
  • Pixabah, v. To order, to command.
  • Po, v. 1. To cry out loudly. 2. To be angry with some one.
  • Pocob, n. A shield. See p. 18.
  • Poklah, n. Dust.
  • Pokon, n. Trouble, pain.
  • Pop, n. A mat; popoh, a council. See p. 36.
  • Poroh, v. To burn, to set on fire.
  • Poye, v. To put one side, to neglect.
  • Poch, v. To divide, to split.
  • Puak or Puvak, n. Silver; money, coin. See p. 19.
  • Pub, n. The blow-gun, p. 18.
  • Puz, n. Power, magic. See p. 46.
  • Puq, v. To break up ground; to soak in water; to dissolve or to make
    into dust. Hence, n. fire, dust.
  • Que, pron. They, used with absolute, passive and neuter verbs.
    Gram., p. 47.
  • [219]Queh, n. A deer.
  • Quere, adv. Thus, as, even so; quereca, therefore; querera, as
    this; querelae, as that.
  • Qui, pron. Those, their.
  • Quichin, pron. Of them.
  • Quicot, v. To rejoice, to delight in.
  • Quir, v. To unloose, untie.
  • Quic, n. Blood.
  • Rah, v. To wish, tivaho, I wish; (absolute) xraho, he wished.
  • Ramon, n. A piece, a bit.
  • Ramoneh, v. To reduce to pieces, to overcome.
  • Rax, adj. Green, blue; precious, noble; renowned, famous.
  • Raxah, n. A tree, a species of plantain.
  • Ri, pron. He, she it; this, that; often used in the sense of
    definite article, ri huyu, the hill.
  • Richin, pron. Of that one, of him, his, its.
  • Ruma, prep. By, for, with.
  • Tacaxepeval, n. Name of the first month of the native calendar.
  • Tak, v. To send, to call one, to despatch to one. Gram., p.
  • Tahin, part. Of present time.
  • Tak, adv. A particle conveying the idea of recurrence or repetition,
    as hetak, hutak, p. 12. See Gram., p. 72.
  • Takchibal, n. That which incites, or persuades. An instrumental form
    from takchiih.
  • Takchiih, v. To incite, move, induce.
  • Takeh, v. To obey.
  • Tan, adv. Now, at present; particle of present time.
  • Tap, n. Crab.
  • Tata, n. Father. Originally the reduplication of the particle of
    courtesy, ta, which is now used by and to married people. It also
    means lord, ruler. Cf. Gram., p. 72.
  • Taqah, n. A plain; the sea coast as opposed to the interior. See
  • Tach, n.
  • Tecpan, n. See p. 13.
  • Tee, n. Mother. See p. 35.
  • Telep, v. To carry on the shoulders.
  • Telechuh, v. To wrestle; to take captive; to tie with cords.
  • Tem, n. A bench or seat. See p. 20.
  • [220]Tepeval, n. Sovereignty, power.
  • Teuh, adj. Cold.
  • Ti, v. To eat, to bite.
  • Ti, pron. He, it, she; you.
  • Tih, v. To give to eat, to feed; to invite; to try, to test; to teach,
    to instruct.
  • Tih, n. The doctrine, the teaching.
  • Tihoh, v. To teach another.
  • Tinamit, n. Town, city.
  • Tiohil, n. The body, the bulk of an animal.
  • Tiquer, v. To begin, to commence.
  • Titil, n. A color. See p. 204.
  • Tiuh tiuh, n. See p. 196.
  • Tixli, n. The tapir.
  • Ticuil, v. To be rooted in the ground. See cuil.
  • To, v. To aid, to succor.
  • Tohoh, v. To make a loud noise, to thunder. See p. 199.
  • Tol, v. To abandon.
  • Toloba, v. To desert, abandon, forsake.
  • Tooh, n. Weapons, of all kinds.
  • Toq, v. To shoot up, to burst forth.
  • Toq, v. To push in, to insert.
  • Toqe, v. To arrive at a place.
  • Tuc, v. To turn, revolve, move about.
  • Tucur, n. The owl.
  • Tulul, n. The zapote tree.
  • Tun, n. A native drum; a branch, a sprout, a twig.
  • Tunay, n. The elder tree. Span. sauco.
  • Tux, n. A kind of acorn.
  • Ucheex, v. To relate, to tell, to say, especially in reporting what
    others have said. As a rule it follows the words quoted (Coto).
  • Ue, conj. If.
  • Ul, v. To arrive, to come to.
  • Ulaah, v. To arrive at, as a home; to seek as a refuge (Bras.).
  • Ulaam, v. To have at one’s house, as a guest, etc.
  • Uleuh, n. Earth, soil, land, ground.
  • Umul, n. The rabbit.
  • Unum, n. The male organ; a worm, a snake.
  • Ut, n. Dove.
  • Utiuh, n. The coyote.
  • [221]Utzin, v. To finish, to complete.
  • Ux, v. To be, to become. See Gram., p. 33.
  • Uxla, n. The breath; an odor; steam.
  • Uxlan, v. To rest, to repose, to take breath (from uxla).
  • Va, part. Here, now.
  • Va, v. To eat.
  • Vach, n. Face, visage, front; surface, superficies; brightness,
    splendor; fruit, products, profits; power, dignity.
  • Vachih, v. To see with one’s own eyes; to have before one’s face.
  • Vae, part. This, this is, here is.
  • Vapal, n. The lintel of a door, the frame of a window, etc.
  • Var, v. To sleep.
  • Vave, adv. Here.
  • Vay, n. Bread, of any kind.
  • Vayhal, n. Hunger.
  • Vi, n. The head.
  • Vi, part. A correlative and instrumental particle. See Gram., p. 63.
  • Vik, v. To increase or add something; to ornament, to adorn; to
    arrange, to set in order by adding to.
  • Vinak, n. Man, the human species; a people.
  • Vinak chij, n. Injury or misfortune; a legal term applied to certain
  • Vuk, adj. Seven.
  • Xa, part. But, only, etc. An antithetical particle, used in many
    connections, as xae, xa ca, xa ri ca, va xe re, xa ca,
    xe re, xa ha, all signify but, next, etc.
  • Xah, v. To move actively and cheerfully; hence, to dance; of a dog, to
    wag his tail.
  • Xahab, n. Sandals, shoes, moccasins.
  • Xahan, n. Prohibition, abstention.
  • Xahaneh, v. To abstain from, to refrain.
  • Xahpota chich, n. Body armor. (“Malla ô peto.” Varea).
  • Xak, n. 1. Leaf. 2. Dye, color, tint. See p. 204.
  • Xambey, n. One who follows another.
  • Xambeyah, v. To do something later than another, to follow, to come
  • Xane, v. To strip, to uncover.
  • Xaquere, adv. But thus; see Xa.
  • [222]Xavica. See Xa.
  • Xax. Particle of affirmation, an intensive.
  • Xhayil, n. A married woman, a wife. From hay, with the fem.
    prefix—“the woman of the house.”
  • Xim, v. To tie, to bind onesself; to assume.
  • Xiquin, n. Ears.
  • Xit, n. The jade, the green stone (piedra verde como torquesa.
  • Xivae, n. A conch shell used as a horn.
  • Xmier, adv. Already, formerly; xmierok, before, previously.
  • Xocon, n. The left hand; chu xocon, on the left.
  • Xoh, pron. We.
  • Xoq, Xocoh, v. To complain against one.
  • Xoch, n. The owl; a malicious person.
  • Xul, n. A flute.
  • Xule, v. To descend, to go down.
  • Xuc, n. A net used by the Indians of the Sierra to catch birds.
  • Xcul, n. A kind of dance. See p. 45.
  • Ya, v. To give, to present.
  • Yaar, v. To spoil, waste, go to ruin.
  • Yac, n. To build a house; to contract for, ask for.
  • Yala, v. To surpass, become distinguished.
  • Yaloh, v. To delay, to remain.
  • Yamalakin, v. To give presents.
  • Yamanic, n. Precious stone.
  • Yanabil, n. Sickness, disease.
  • Ybah, n. The ancient site of a town; the hereditary home; the cement
    of a house. From ybil, to ripen, to mature.
  • Yeq, v. To tread under foot, to detest, to hate.
  • Ylon, v. To overtake one (alcanzar á otro que va adelante. Varea).
  • Yncheel, adv. How, in what manner.
  • Ynup, n. The ceiba tree.
  • Yoh, v. To destroy, tear down.
  • Yon, adv. Only, alone; ruyon, he or it alone or only. See Gram.,
    p. 32.
  • Yoq, v. To knead dough. Met. to bruise.
  • Yuh, v. To mix, to mingle.
  • Yuhuh, n. A quarrel, a revolt.
  • Yuk, v. To string out, to stretch out, like a rope. Hence
  • [223]Yuku, n. A rope or cord. Varea.
  • Yuyub, n. Shouts.
  • Yx, pron. You.
  • Yxim, n. Maize (the grains).
  • Yco, v. To pass over; to go from one place to another.
  • qa, n. The hand, the arm.
  • qaba, v. To place supports; to strengthen; to extend the hands.
  • qahan, v. To sound, to resound; to snore, etc.
  • qahar, v. To expend, to expand.
  • qahartizah, v. To praise, to commend.
  • qalaba, v. To cause misfortune, to make miserable.
  • qalah, adj. n. Something clear, apparent, manifest.
  • qalel. See p. 37.
  • qalibal, n. Seat, see, throne. “Asieñto del señor principal.”
    Coto. See p. 20.
  • qam, n. Bridge, stairs.
  • qana abah, n. A color. See p. 204.
  • qan, adj. Yellow; ripe; rich.
  • qaramaq, n. Nation, confederation.
  • qat, v. To cut, in general; hence, to decide a question; to ford a
    river; to die early, etc.
  • qavonon, n. A yellow bug; from qan, yellow, and Vonon, bug.
  • qax, v. 1. To pass, to pass over. 2. To bring forth, to give birth
  • qaq, n. Fire.
  • qaqal, n. Distinction, greatness.
  • qek, adj. Black; dark.
  • qekal, n. Blackness, darkness.
  • qekum, n. The darkness of the night.
  • qih, n. The sun; a day; a time or epoch; an occasion or opportunity;
    the sign or constellation under which one is born; hence, fate or
    fortune. Ahqih, the diviner; cholol qih, to cast the horoscope.
  • qihib, v. To divine, to predict, to tell fortunes.
  • qil, v. To prevent, impede, harass.
  • qinom, adj. Rich. n. riches.
  • qiomah, n. This appears to be a form of qinomah, riches.
  • [224]qip, v. To take up in the fingers; to pinch.
  • qo, v. To sustain, to maintain, to give to eat.
  • qol, n. Resin from the pine.
  • qop, n. Ear rings.
  • quzqum, n. Delicacy, something delicious to eat.
  • quq, n. A species of bird. See p. 204.
  • ququraxon, n. Green feathers; the plumage of certain birds.
  • ca, conj. And, also.
  • cabovil, n. The deity, God, divinity.
  • caçe, v. To survive, to grow strong.
  • cahol, n. A son, sons; also, generally, descendants of a common
  • caholah, v. To beget, engender.
  • cak, v. To shoot with arrows; to stone. 2. To place onesself in
    front of another.
  • cakaba, v. To show onesself.
  • cal, v. To tie together, to arrange in order as by tying.
  • calakan, n. Small bells tied together. See p. 17.
  • cam, v. To take, to bear away; especially to take a woman in
    marriage, to marry.
  • canixt, n. A bird. See p. 197.
  • carunah, adv. The same, again.
  • caxtoc, n. The Evil Spirit.
  • cay, adj. Pungent, bitter, strong of smell or taste.
  • cayh, v. To sell.
  • cacalih, v. To guard.
  • ceche, n. A forest, a woods.
  • cel, n. A small species of parrot.
  • cexevach, n. Substitute, one who stands for another (Anon).
  • ciyaley, adv. That which exceeds; used in comparison. See Gram.,
    p. 67.
  • ciy, adv. Much, many.
  • ciyar, v. To multiply, to increase.
  • ciz, v. To finish, to conclude, to end.
  • coh, v. To be in a place, etc. Spanish, estar. See Gram., p. 33.
  • cok, cokoh, v. To complain (quejarse á Dios. Varea, p. 414).
  • col, v. To cut down, to send out from, to diminish, to lessen.
  • [225]cot, v. To dig a hole. Met. to examine verbally, to interrogate,
    to cross-question.
  • cotoh, v. 1. To engrave, to sculpture. cotonic, that which is
    sculptured. 2. To set in order, to arrange battalions, etc.
  • cokikan, n. Loads of roasted maize, used as food on long journeys;
    from dzo, “mais cocido,” and kikan.
  • cox, v. To clash; to strike hard things together, ta coxel
    qaq to strike fire with the flint (Varea).
  • coxol, n. He who dashes together hard things, as stones. See
  • coxom, n. That which is dashed together, as stones. See cox.
  • coxtun, n. Fortress, stronghold.
  • cu, v. To put well in order, to arrange.
  • cual, n. Diamond, or other precious stone.
  • cubul, n. Garlands (Br.). From cu, to arrange in order, to put
    in place.
  • cuil, v. To throw down to the ground, to lie or roll upon the
    ground; to annoy, harass.
  • cul, n. All kinds of clothing; vesture, etc.
  • cul, v. To receive; to meet, to go out to meet one; to visit one; to
    converse, to reply to, to be beaten.
  • cule, v. To marry.
  • culvachih, v. To meet face to face. From cul, to receive, to
    meet, and vach, face.
  • cut, v. To show, to make manifest.
  • cutuh, v. To ask, to inquire.
  • cux, n. The heart; the mind.
  • cha, n. The bow; the arrow.
  • cha,
    } v. To speak to talk, to say.
  • chabak, n. Mud.
  • chac, n. A pestilence.
  • chac, v. To conquer, to overpower.
  • chac, n. Flesh, meat.
  • chacatah, v. To sit down, to rest seated; to reduce in value, to
  • chacbal, n. A victory, a conquest.
  • chacat, n. A seat, a throne. See p. 20.
  • [226]chaka, prep. From the other side; chaka palouh, from beyond the
    sea; he ah chaka ya, those from the other side of the water, a term
    applied to the Spaniards (Varea).
  • chakap, n. and adv. The half, partly.
  • chamey, n. Cane, staff; a badge of office; ahchamey, the
    alguacil or constable.
  • chaoh, n. See p. 55.
  • chay, v. To injure, destroy. 2. To fasten, solder.
  • chi, v. To disquiet, to be noisy.
  • chih, v. To suffer, to bear.
  • chipil, n. The youngest son.
  • chique, v. To appoint, to resolve upon.
  • chich, n. Iron, copper. See p. 19.
  • chob, n. Division, class, order, battalion.
  • chocoba, v. To seat a person.
  • chol, v. To skin, to bark, to clean; to acquit, to rid of.
  • cholih, v. To value, to put a value upon; hence, cholih qih,
    to value days, to decide which are lucky and which unlucky; chol
    , an astrological calendar. See p. 31.
  • chub, v. To ravage, as a pestilence.
  • chuc, n. The arm, or arms.
  • chutin, adj. Small, little, young.
  • dzak, v. To work in clay; to make bricks or tiles; to make, to
    create. 2. To joke; to make fun. 3. To lie, to deceive.
  • dzakol, n. The maker, the creator.
  • dzalam. See p. 32.
  • dzanin, v. To sound loudly, to make a great noise, of people,
    trumpets, dancing, etc.
  • dzapal, n. An enclosure; that which is shut up or enclosed; from
    dzape, neuter of tin dzapih, shut up or enclose.
  • dzapibal, n. The place where something is enclosed or shut up. See
    dzapal, and p. 197.
  • dzi, n. A dog.
  • dzibah, v. To paint; to write. See p. 16.
  • dzima, n. A sharp-pointed tool; v. to dig with one (Ximenes).
  • dziquin, n. A bird, the generic word.
  • dziz, v. To sew, to puncture.
  • [227]dzidzot, v. To hiss (of a snake), to squeak (of a rat), to whistle
    (of a bird), etc.
  • dzum. 1. The breasts, the mammae. 2. A skin, a hide.
  • dzumah, v. To suck, to take the breast; to reduce a swelling; to
    lessen, to diminish.
  • dzutuh, n. A flower, especially of the maize.
  • Tzak, v. To throw, to fall; to tangle, to trip; to hinder; to go from
    the road; to drop a subject, a lawsuit, etc.; to pardon; to excuse
    onesself; to cease, to die.
  • Tzal, v. To make war, to give battle.
  • Tzam, n. 1. Nose, beak, snout, of man, bird or brute. 2. The point or
    end of anything.
  • Tzap, n. Fault, evil, misdemeanor. See p. 28.
  • Tzara, n. A snare to take birds, etc.
  • Tzayh, v. To do an injury without cause.
  • Tzatz, adv. Much, many, thickly, densely.
  • Tzih, n. A word, a speech.
  • Tzihoxic, n. That which has been said; a passive verbal from tzih.
  • Tzimay, n. A cup, or drinking vessel.
  • Tzolih, v. To turn; to return; to turn one’s thoughts upon, etc.
  • Tzuy, n. A large calabash or gourd.
  • Tzuk, v. To sustain, to maintain.
  • Tzul, v. To intertwine, to embrace, to sleep together.


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